Thursday, 16 December 2021

Early Tudor Mounted Archers

This unit has been a long time coming. When the Perry Miniatures Light Cavalry set was released I had these in mind but at that time I was working on my collection of French cavalry so the first attempt at conversion was some ordonnance archers to add to the Lance I was working upon. You can read more about that and enjoy some rather nice pictures here.

That was back in 2017, it's been interesting to see how my sculpting has developed from there, there's definitely a bit more life in these I think. Here's how I put this unit together:

Stage one, sculpting and assembly.

The unit was built from parts primarily from the Perry Miniatures Light Cavalry 1450-1500 plastic set along with some of their early Tudor Heads and some of the bucklers from the Bow and Bill set.

To begin, detail from the belt down to the knee on each rider is scraped away to make room for the coat. If you don't do this the coat will look really voluminous. I then glue the rider on to a completed horse minus the head as it gets in the way while working on it. This is so you have something to push against whilst sculpting and more importantly so the coat can sit naturally. 

If you're confident you can pretty much do all of the coat in one sitting, you just need to be really careful not to touch the green stuff on one side while working on the other - hold the horse rather than the rider. I did side one, then the front of the coat, then side two, leave to dry. Add the various accessories then do the straps and the fastening on the coat breast. For the straps, roll out a long thin sausage of green stuff and leave it for a bit then cut and apply from the bow across the chest or over the shoulder, flattening/shaping thereafter.

Here's a figure fully completed and ready to be painted;

note the fastening on the chest

glue the bow on first then the arrow bag.

Here are some more examples of the completed figures prior to painting;

the purse is from the Warlord Landsknecht box, this was gently pushed into the completed coat while the green stuff was curing.

The archers have a mix of livery coats with short and long sleeves, the latter require less work as you can see here.

Gently push the sword on to the coat while it is curing so it sits more naturally.

Lots of kit on this chap ! The arms are from the Perry Mercenaries command sprue, the right hand had a sword which was carefully trimmed away

Stage two, painting

With these essentially now being one piece figures there were a couple of challenges to the painting. I found it easier to paint the shade tones on the horse and rider first, apply the respective washes (more on that below) then paint the horse first and rider second. For the horses it really helps to have a good photographic reference source for the colours. Mine is The Ultimate Horse by Elwyn Hartley Edwards, it's a good hardback with a lot of photographs and presently going rather cheap on Amazon. Here's a few that I photographed prior to basing:

I really like the way the skirt of the jacket sits on this figure, it came out nicely to a lick of paint. The horse was painted in Foundry Buff Leather, shade then washed with a brown mix of Foundry Bay brown shade, Citadel contrast skeleton horde and a bit of water. The rider was painted in shade tones and washed at this stage also. When dry I re-applied the Buff leather shade, mid and highlight to the horse then washed a blue/grey mix (Foundry British blue grey shade, Granite shade, tiny bit of black) on the legs, rump and nose. I added water to some parts to thin it and the darker parts were left, use the brush to add and lift water off at this stage to create a tonal effect. While the wash was still wet i added spots of buff leather highlight to represent dapples. When dry I re-highlighted some areas on the head and socks then painted the tack and brass fittings.

The flag is Pete's Flags, I asked for a sheet of St George banners and streamers of varying dimensions and Pete kindly obliged. The Horse was painted using Wargames Foundry Tan, shade mid and highlight. The whole horse was painted in the shade tone then washed with a mid-brown mix of Foundry Bay brown shade, Citadel contrast Cygor Brown and Technical Medium. When dry the shade mid and highlight were re-applied.

This chap is carrying a lot of kit which came out nicely

I used a Red Kite feather as a reference to paint the feather in the cap

I think another reason for the wait on this unit is that to do it properly they really need a dismounted version as well as some horse holders which i'm sure we shall see in due course. In the interim the certainly make for an impressive unit. As I predominately game skirmishes I'm sure they'll get a lot of use as well.

I decided to give the unit a simple banner of St. George for versatility and as there are two worthy candidates for the leader that I couldn't decide between. 

Both commanded a body of mounted archers in 1513 and details of these actions survive to show how they were used in a similar fashion of ambush in the Scots and French campaigns of 1513. Both of these are yet to be gamed so there's still a chance that I may well choose to add these commanders to the unit.

First up is Sir William Bulmer  (1465-1531)

Sir William Bulmer was descended from a long-established Yorkshire family, he earned his knighthood in the Earl of Surrey’s Scottish campaign of 1497. Sixteen years later Thomas Ruthall, bishop of Durham, singled him out for praise after his part in the ill raid and Flodden. Thereafter he was increasingly employed both by Ruthall and his successor Wolsey, and by the crown, as a soldier and administrator. He also served as one of three knights entrusted with the King’s security at the Field of Cloth of Gold.

I'm not 100% on the heraldry above, this features in two Flodden books and some flags i've seen but there could be possible alternatives.

For my particular interest on this occasion it is Bulmer's command of a body of Mounted Archers in the summer of 1513 that takes my attention;

Bulmer was ordered by Surrey on 1 July 1513 to take a force of 200 mounted archers to watch the border.

In early August  Alexander Lord Home gathered a force of some 7000 of his Scots borderers to carry out a raid into Northumberland which proved very successful and a source of much plunder for his men.  Bulmer was not able to prevent this raid but used his numerically inferior force to lie in ambush at Millfield on the expected route of return.

After a successful foray, Home was returning with substantial booty when, on 13th August 1513, he was ambushed by Bulmer's archers who had formed up either side of the road to enfilade Home's force as he passed through. According to Hall, the archers 'shot so wholly together' that they  killed some 500-600 Scots in the opening arrow storm, a panic and flight ensued as the raiders scattered for cover with Bulmer's men in pursuit, no doubt all the better for being able to mount up. The archers took 400 prisoners including Home's standard bearer and put the rest to flight.  The English recovered all the booty taken and Home’s foray became known as the ‘Ill Raid’.

Our next candidate takes us to France:

Sir John Giffard (c. 1465-1556), of Chillington in Staffordshire was a soldier, courtier and member of  Parliament. 

Giffard's military career saw him in the King's army in the 1513 Invasion of France, a member of the King's bodyguard at the Field of Cloth of Gold, he may also have served in the invasion of 1523 and was sent to quell the rebels during the Pilgrimage of Grace in 1536. A typical career soldier and from what I've found rather skilled with the Longbow. 

In 1513, aged 48 he was the King's standard bearer as his ward rode out of Calais to join the army besieging Therouanne and would distinguish himself playing a key part commanding a troop of mounted archers in the Battle of the Spurs . He was Knighted later in the campaign at Tournai.

Halls Chronicle recounts the opening phases of the Battle of the Spurs after scouts had reported that a body of French Gendarmes were approaching ;

'Then  euery man  prepared  hym  selfe  to  battayle  resortynge  to  the  standarde,  the  horsemen  marched  be- fore the  footmen  by  the  space  of  a  myle,  still  came  curroures  berynge  tydynges  that  the Frenche  armye  approched.  

The  kynge  bad  sette  forwarde  and  to  auaunce  hys  banner  in name  of  God and  Sainct  George.  The  Almaynes  seynge  this  (to  what  purpose  it  was  not knowen)  sodainly  embatteled  them  selfes  on  the  left  hande  of  the  kyng  and  left  the  brest  or fronte  of  the  kyngs  battayle  bare.  As  the  kyng  was  thus  marchyng  forwarde  towarde  the battaile,  to  him  came  the  Emperour  Maximilian  with.  30  men  of  armes  he  and  all  his companye  armed  in  on  sute  with  redde  crosses:  then  by  the  counsayll  of  the  Emperour  the kynge  caused  cei  taine  peces  of  small  ordinaunce  to  be  laied  on  the  toppe  of  a  long  hill  or banke  for  the  out  skowerers:  thus  the  kynges  horsemen  and  a  fewe  archers  on  horsebacke marched  forwarde.  The  kyng  woulde  fayne  haue  been  afore  with  the  horsmen,  but  his counsayll  pcrswaded  him  the  contrary,  and  so  he  taried  with  the  footmen  accompanied  with themperour.'

Maximilian advised Henry to send small pieces of field artillery along with some mounted archers ahead to take a ridge in the path of the French.

'The  Frenchmen  came  on  in.  iii.  ranges,  36.  mens  thickenes  &  well  they  perceiued  the kynges  battayle  of  footmen  marching  forward:  the  erle  of  Essex  capitayne  of  the  hors- men, and  sir  Iho  Peche  with  the  kynges  horsmen  and  the  Burgonyons  to  the  nomber  of  a 600.  stode  with  banner  displayed  in  a  valey.'  

400 English & Burgundian Horsemen alongside 100 mounted archers commanded by Gifford advance to the top of the hill to take first sight of the advancing French;

'The  lorde  Walonne  and  the  lord  Ligny  with bastarde  Emerv  and  there  bende  to  the  nomber  of.  400.  horsmen  seuered  them  selfes  and stode  a  syde  from  the  Englishmen  with banner  displayed  remoued  vp  to  the  toppe  of  the  hill,  and  there  they  mett  with  sir  Ihon  Gyl- forde  a.  100.  talle  archers  on  horsebacke,  which  had  askryed  the  Frenchemcn.' 

The Burgundian and English horse make themselves known to the French while the archers dismount using a hedge as cover;

'Now  on  the topp  of  the  hill  was  afayre  plaine  of  good  groundc,  on  the  left  hand  a  lowe  wodde,  and  on the  right  hand  a  falo\ve  felde.  The  lord  Walonne  and  the  Burgonions  kept  them  a  loofe, thenappered  in  sight  the  Frenchmen  with  banners  and  standardes  displaied.  Then  came  to thecapitaynes.  of  Thenglishmen  of  armes,  an  English  officer  of  armcs  called  Clarenseux  and sayde,  in  Gods  name  sett  forward,  for  the  victorie  is  yours  for  I  see  by  them,  they  will  not abide,  and  I  will  go  with  you  in  my  coate  of  armes.  Then  the  horsmen  set  forward,  and the  archers  alighted  and  wore  set  in  order  by  an  hedge  all  a  long  a  village  side  culled  Bornye [Bomy]:'

The French horse take the bait and advance into a volley from the archers followed swiftly by a charge from the English horse;

'the  Frenchmen  came  on  with  33  standardes  displayed,  and  the  archers  shotle  a  pace  and galled  their  horses,  and  the  English  speres  set  on  freshly,  cryegsainct  George,  &  fought  va- liantly with  the  Frenchmen  and  threw  downe  their  standards,  the  dust  was  great  and  the crye  more,  but  sodainly  the  Frenchmen  shocked  to  their  standards  and  fledde,  and  threw away  there  speres,  swerdes,  and  mascs  and  cut  of  the  bardes  of  their  horses  to  ronne  the lighter,  when  the  hinder  parte  saw  the  former  fly,  they  fled  aiso,  but  the  soner  for  one cause  which  was  this.'

Having visited the battlefield, the path of the French advance is rolling fields, the French horse approached down a gentle slope seeing the English /Burgundian Horse at the other side but it is unlikely they would have immediately seen the light artillery nor archers thus the first volley would have come as an unpleasant surprise and softened the charge immediately prior to the English/Burgundian counter-charge.

I found Giffard's coat of arms (above) and also his standard which seems almost perfect in his role as commander of a troop of mounted archers;

However, upon further reading I found that Giffard was not granted this standard until 1523, this and the family crest both relate to an incident involving a Panther which had escaped from his menagerie of exotic animals at Chillington Hall.

The Panther had escaped from its cage into the Forest of Brewood.  Sir John and his son Thomas took their longbows and went in search of it, finally catching up with it about to pounce on a woman and child. Sir John took his longbow and  as he shot, it was his son shouted “Prenez haleine, tirez fort”, Take breath, pull strong.

A waymarker still stands at the lodge of Chillington Hall marking the supposed spot of the incident.

From this incident the first of the family's two crests were granted.  The first, granted in 1513 no doubt at the start of Giffard's interest in the Panther, is a; 

Panthers head couped full-faced spotted various with flames issueing from his mouth”.  

The second granted in 1523, is a; "demi-archer, bearded and couped at the knees from his middle, a short coat, paly argend and gule, at his middle a quiver or arrows or in his hands a bow and arrow, drawn to the head ” with the motto “Prenez haleine, tirez fort”.

The inherent dangers of exotic animals immortalised in heraldry !

*  *  *  *  *

I predominantly game with a bespoke set of rules based upon Lion Rampant, here's the unit profile and special rules for Mounted Archers:


Mounted Archers





Attack Value




Defence Value




Shoot Value / Range

5+ / 12”



Maximum movement




Special Rules


Models per unit: 6

Special Rules, Mounted Archers & Mounted Arquebusiers

Movement; the unit can make a single mount or dismount at the start or end of a movement phase and must dismount to fire. A unit cannot mount, move and dismount and must mount to move.

Evade, upon a successful roll of 7+ the unit may perform an evade action when charged with a -1 shoot value and moves a half move as cavalry. This represents the unit firing then quickly mounting to escape.

(Arquebusiers) Shot: Unless in cover all units count as -1 Armour against Shooting by this unit in half range or less.

*  *  *  *  *

Something of a bumper post for you there, I hope it was an interesting read and I look forward to seeing more of this unit and its future exploits on the battlefield.

I'm not sure what will be next as i'll be having a bit of a festive hiatus so it'll be 2022 which shall herald the next unit for the collection. If you can't wait that long to see what I get up to I have a Facebook group for the blog by the name of Army Royal, all are welcome to share and chat all things Tudor.

Bye for now and all the best to you and yours


Sunday, 21 November 2021

Irish Kern

The latest figures join the ranks are a host of Irish Kern. I've been steadily painting them for a while and have reached a natural pause, these three units will be used in their own right as Irish or as auxiliaries for the Tudor English.

The figures are all from Perry Miniatures and bar a couple of head swaps are painted straight out of the box - a rather pleasant novelty for me !

The sculpting is really characterful and well researched, I really enjoyed painting them.

To begin I was keen to get a basic understanding of the clothing and found this short video from a re-enactor to be really useful and informative, have a watch now before continuing;

Traditional Irish clothing in the Gaelic period

The term Kern comes from the Gaelic "Ceithearn" to describe an able-bodied free man performing military service. The Scots Highlander "Cateran" comes from the same source. These were the native Irish infantry and the most numerous troop type to be found in every Irish army. Henry VIII used Kern as auxilliaries to his Irish expeditions as well as in France in 1544 for skirmishes and raids.

Kern serving Edward Poynings in Ireland, 1494

John Dymmok in  "A Treatise of Ireland" c.1600, described them as follows 

"The kerne is a kinde of footeman, sleigh tly armed with a sworde, a targett of woode, or a bow and sheafe of arrows with barbed heades, or els 3 dartes, which they cast with a wonderfull facillity and nearnes, a weapon more noysom to the enemy, especially horsemen, then yt is deadly ; within theise few yeares they have practized the muskett and callyver, and are growne good and ready shott".

Though later this describes their main armnament (less musket and caliver for the earlier sixteenth century).

Kern are characterised by their long yellow shirts 'leine croich' and short jackets 'ionar' as seen in these two contemporary sources;

The earliest drawing of Kern from the sixteenth century was done by a Dürer in 1521. His picture is of five Irish soldiers he presumably met on a stay in the Low Countries, the accuracy of the equipment and dress suggests it was from life. One is wearing an acton (“cotun” in Irish) the other four are dressed in leine that reach midway between the ankle and knees.

This anonymous woodcut titled 'drawn after the quicke' (from life) is dated to later in Henry VIII's reign and depicts a group of Irish men all wearing leine with very wide, hanging sleeves, and short 'ionar' jackets. In this illustration the leine are belted at the waist and then drawn up so that the hem is about the knees and the slack hangs around their waist as described in the video above, this may have been used as a pocket. The sleeves are narrow at the body and wide at the wrist, it is possible that these may have been used for parrying and were useful for concealing weapons and plunder.

John Derricke writing in 1581 describes Kern in this short verse;

'Their shirtes be verie straunge,
Not reaching paste the thie:
With pleates on pleates thei pleated are
As thick as pleates may lye.
Whose sleves hang trailing doune
Almost unto the Shoe:
And with a Mantell commonlie,
The Irish Karne doe goe'

The leine was a saffron coloured shirt made of strong, thick hand-woven linen with voluminous sleeves dyed yellow using saffron for the nobility and either less saffron or saffron mixed with lichens, poplar leaves and bark for those less well off. 

In the 16th century, the only colour mentioned is saffron or yellow. Some do not mention colour which  leaves open the possibility of other colours, but it cannot be doubted that saffron was the overwhelming favourite.

Saffron was grown in large quantities all over Ireland predominantly for this purpose and so much in use that local supplies were not enough and it was also imported from abroad. 

The following abridged extract from an in-depth essay by the Wilde Irish re-enactment group adds some fascinating detail;

'Sixteenth century Irish men of war acquired a new saffron shirt once a year in anticipation of Christmas or Easter, so that the wearer might ‘go gay at a feast.’  We are told that ‘many times five marks’ * would be lavished on a single shirt in saffron dye and silk embroidery. To meet the formidable expense the kern would “rob out of churches or elsewhere . . . so that more robbery and felony is against such feasts committed as all the year following.”  For instance, O’Bierne and Kavanaugh “agreed to make a prey [rustle cattle] and with it get silk, saffron and cloth in Kilkenny.”  That would be one answer to the often asked question of how simple Irish men of war could have afforded such costly attire. 

Newly dyed saffron gives a brilliant dayglow yellow of almost fluorescent intensity.  It cannot be matched by weld or any other natural dye.  It is also one of the only natural dyes that take readily to linen.  This helps explain its popularity at a time when such bright colors were not often met with.  It will fade with exposure to sunlight and washing, a fact which may explain why the Irish were said ‘seldom or never’ to wash their shirts.  On the other hand, shirts dyed with saffron were said to ‘continue long clean, and lengthen life,’ saffron having then a reputation as a preservative which it still retains, at least as regards food.  It is also clear that saffron was thought to prevent “that evil which cometh by much sweating and long wearing of linen,” i.e, lice.

So, having spent so much on his feast day shirt, the kern would proceed to wear it throughout the coming year, relying on the preservative properties of the saffron dye—rather than laundering—to extend its life.  At the end of a year’s time it’s not hard to imagine that the shirt would have hung  ‘in tatters’ and been ‘too torne.’  The fading of color over time also explains a later writer’s assertion that the gowns of the Irish were ‘yellowish, not yellow.’  Of course, linen garments may be re-dyed much more readily than woollen ones, and it is likely that references to shirts as such being ‘stained’ or ‘washed’ in saffron may indicate re-dying.'

*equal to around £2000 in today's money.

You can read the full article here.

'Irish as they stand accrouted being at the service of the late King Henry VIII' by Lucas DeHeere, 1575.

For my interpretation I took this information on the dyes to mean that there would be a noticeable variation in colour on the leine from which one could denote the wearer's status. This in particular informed my painting style.


Kern with two handed weapons (1st on left is a head swap)

Kern with two handed weapons (2nd from left is a head swap)

For the commander  I used Wargames Foundry Deep Brown Leather light tone as a base to which I then applied a wash comprising;

  1. Deep Brown Leather Light
  2. Citadel Contrast Snakebite Leather
  3. Citadel Contrast Technical medium 

I then re-applied the Deep Brown Leather Light as a shade tone followed by the Wargames Foundry Ochre triad with a final highlight of the light tone mixed with a little white applied sparingly.

The process was the same for the other ranks but I started with Ochre mid tone as the shade, a wash with less of the contrast leather added and a highlight of the Ochre light mixed with light.

I painted most of the figures in pairs with slight variation in the wash as I went for tonal variety.

As an aside, I generally paint using a shade wash on all figures and i'm always evolving this. I have found the increased pigment in the Citadel contrast paints work well when used as a component of a wash as described above. On their own it's too much. The Technical medium is essentially the same medium minus pigment but it has more body and reliability than just using water. Liquitex Professional matte fluid is the same and much cheaper though it comes in larger pots.

Kern with arquebus

Kern with arquebus

The first record of handguns in Ireland dates to 1487 when Godfrey O'Donnell shot an O'Rourke at Castlecar. The earliest use in battle is Knockdoe, 1504 where a Dubliner is recorded to have killed a horseman with a handgun, arquebus balls have also been found at the site. The Earl of Kildare, Gerald Fitzgerald seems to have been responsible for the introduction of firearms to Ireland and ironically he himself died of a gunshot wound in 1513.

If you're interested to know more on the early history of guns in Ireland this article on JSTOR is a good read. You just need to register which is free and after that you can read up to 100 articles per month.

Kern with darts

Kern with bows

The Ionar jacket was made very short and with sleeves open on the underside to allow the large hanging sleeve of the Léine to fall through. The jacket body and sleeves were decorated with lines of piping or fringing, sometimes both. The most decorative had embroidered medieval style foliage or Celtic decoration. 

I used the above 'drawn from the quick' drawing as my main reference with some left relatively plain and others with added piping and embroidered designs.

Some of the figures have hose on to which I attempted to paint as trews with mixed results, i think a couple need to be a bit more muted in colour but they give a pleasing result nonetheless.

I hope you enjoyed that brief study of saffron in miniature form. I really enjoyed painting these and having recently gamed with them they are a joy to behold on the table. I'm keen to add more at some point so I can field an Irish host, at present these comfortably add an auxiliary element to my Tudor army.

I have a few projects on the go at the moment so i'm not sure what the next post will be. If you can't wait for a complete article please join my Army Royal Facebook group for updates as they happen as well as discussions and articles on the armies and enemies of the Tudor state.

Bye For Now and all the best


Sunday, 13 June 2021

Scots Pike part II

The second batch of Scots Pike is complete, it's been a real marathon but a worthy prize I think you'll agree.

As with the first batch my thinking was to use banners not affiliated to particular nobles nor depict any livery badges of specific retinues so that the figures could have a greater range and not be tied.

I have also adopted the format of heavy armour in the front ranks through to mid then no armour. Almost all figures have some sort of conversion, they've been 10 months in the making.

You can view more on the development of the first batch here

Here follows some photographs of the unit prior to basing with accompanying narrative. First up is the whole group forming up under instruction of their commanders, heavily armoured in the front ranks leading through to no armour in the rear.

Men in the front ranks in full to mid armour of modern and older styles.

The levies, men from the Lowlands and towns wearing their own coats with livery badges, Two men  wear livery coats. The figures are all conversions, some use Steelfist Miniatures Tudor dollies and others have a coat sculpted on to the Perry plastics.

Men in quilted jacks. All created from the Perry Miniatures Mercenaries set with minimal conversion apart from the figure in breastplate with cap over his steel bonnet.

A couple of close ups

Now on to the command.

I was in two minds as to whether to include the gentleman with the two handed sword as initially I could find lots of information regarding the Scots fondness for a 'tua handit sword' with plenty of examples both in the Lowlands and the Highlands but no specific mention of their use at Flodden or indeed in a pike block. I chose to go for it then a few weeks later found exactly what I was looking for in 'The Two Handed Sword, History, design and use' by Neil Melville, extract as follows [abridged];

The Scottish chronicler Robert Lindsay of Pitscottie described an incident in the battle of Flodden involving the Earl of Huntly's highlanders;

'The Earl of Huntlieis hieland men wicht thair bowis and tua handit swordis wrocht sa manfullie that they defait the Inglischemen'

John Muirhead, one of James IV's bodyguards being the subject of a ballad, one verse relates how;

'Afore the king in order stude / The stout laird of Muirhead / Wi' that sam twa-hand muckle sword / The Bartram fell'd stark deid.'

An English two handed sword, known as the 'Fingask' sword has been on the market twice, reputed in family tradition to have been wielded at the battle of Flodden.

Highland, Lowland and English references. I am most happy with that.

As with the previous pike unit I have chosen to depict a Scots nobleman in the latest imported armour (converted Steelfist Miniatures) in discussion with a French Man at Arms who wears a fine damask coat over his armour (converted Perry Miniatures command from the Mercenaries box) Here's a close up of the coat;

The standard bearers carry banners dedicated to St Margaret

I chose these banners primarily on the basis of their mention in historical record. This extract from the Treasurer’s Accounts describes last minute arrangements to buy cloth to make banners and standards for the army, to buy gold thread to decorate the king’s armour with details of the cost to transport lighter weapons to Coldstream;

The document reads / translates as follows;

'August 1513

Item, for four ells of blue taffeta to make Saint Andrew’s and Saint Margaret’s banners, price of the ell 20s; Total £4

Item, for four ells of red taffeta to be the king’s banner, price of the ell 20s; Total £4

Item, for 14 ounces of sewing silk to be fringes to the banners and standards, price of the ounce 5s; Total £3 10s

Item, 3 ells of taffeta to be the king’s standard, price of the ell 20s, Total £3

Item, to a woman that made the fringes for the banner and standards, 40s

Item, for 4 sheep skins to be cases to keep the banner and standards in, price 14s

Item for the making of them in haste 4s

Item, for 10 hanks of gold given to the captain of the castle’s wife for the king’s coat armour, price of the hank 5s; Total 50s

Item, to a man to wait for the standards to bring them with him in haste that night that the king’s grace will depart from Edinburgh 10s

Item, the 19 day of August, for a set of harnesses to the King’s grace bought from Sir David Guthrie for the which he has my obligation of £40

Item, to the constable of the castle of Edinburgh at our departing to England, the last day we were in the castle, to furnish us all with the necessary, to good account £16

Item, the 29 day of August, the king’s grace sent me home for canon wheels, gun stones and oxen.
Item, to 6 horses with gun stones, each man and horse 14s; Total £4 4s

Item, to 20 men and horse to carry 20 dozen of spears to Coldstream, each man and horse 6s; Total £6'

(Accounts of the Lord High Treasurer of Scotland, Vol IV, 1507-1513, p. 521-522

Unfortunately I could not find any further description of the banner which is likely to have either been heraldic or iconographic as they are each blue, so I opted to depict both.

There is an interpretation of the iconographic banner in a number of modern books but it doesn't appear to be based on a historic source.

The Iconographic banner I painted uses an image of St Margaret from a fifteenth century depiction in a prayer book and the heraldic banner takes reference from a sixteenth century depiction of St Margaret and is based in shape upon similar heraldic church banners.

Of particular note is that the heraldry is practically identical to that of Edward the Confessor whose banner was carried by English Armies at Agincourt and emulating his forbears by Henry VIII in his French campaign of 1513.

When photographed together with the first batch they make for quite a sight.

Seeing them together, I just want to paint more ! I think a third batch with Flodden specific flags could really set them off. We shall have to wait and see.

I hope this has made for an interesting read, I've had a lot of fun creating these and I think it shows.

Next up I think the Celtic theme shall continue but with something of an Irish theme. 

If you'd like to see work on the unit as it is put together this blog now has a Facebook group where you can find progress updates on units as I build them, interesting discussion and sharing of collections, video tutorials and lots more.

All the best and take care